Miniature Bull Terriers should have these health tests performed:
Canine Health Information Center (CHIC) requirements:
OFA-CHIC Health Testing Requirements for Miniature Bull Terriers
-Congenital/Advanced Heart Echocardiogram with Color Doppler (ECHO)-
Congenital Cardiac Database:
Congenital heart disease in dogs is a malformation of the heart or great vessels. The lesions characterizing congenital heart defects are present at birth and may develop more fully during perinatal and growth periods. Many congenital heart defects are thought to be genetically transmitted from parents to offspring; however, the exact modes of inheritance have not been precisely determined for all cardiovascular malformations. The most common congenital cardiovascular defects can be grouped into several anatomic categories. These anatomic diagnoses include:
A breed registry number will be issued for any dog found to be normal for congenital cardiac disease at 12 months of age or older. The exam must include auscultation. There is an initial OFA fee and no charge for recertification at a later age. The breed registry number will indicate the age at evaluation and the type of examiner (C-cardiologist, S-specialist, and P-practitioner).
Advanced Cardiac Database:
The Advanced Cardiac Database results in a two-tiered clearance for normal dogs: congenital cardiac disease and adult-onset cardiac disease. Congenital heart disease in dogs is a malformation of the heart or great vessels that is present at birth and may develop more fully during perinatal and growth periods. Adult-onset or developmental cardiac diseases develop later in life and include for example; hypertrophic, arrhythmogenic and dilatative cardiomyopathies. Many congenital and adult-onset or developmental cardiac diseases may have a genetic component, however the exact modes of inheritance have not been precisely determined for all cardiovascular malformations.
The Advanced Cardiac Database examinations results in a two-tiered clearance: congenital cardiac disease and adult-onset cardiac disease. A breed registry number will be issued for any dog found to be normal for cardiac disease (congenital disease and/or adult-onset disease) at 12 months of age or older. The congenital clearances are considered permanent. The adult-onset clearances are valid for one year from the date of the exam. In order for an adult-onset clearance to remain current, exams must be repeated periodically. The exam must be include auscultation at a minimum. Echocardiograms may be recommended following the auscultation results, or for breeds susceptible to adult-onset cardiac diseases requiring an echo for an accurate diagnosis.
Dogs under 12 months of age can be evaluated for the owner’s information. The most opportune time to gather this data is at 8–10 weeks of age, prior to the puppy’s release to the new owner.
Cardiac Disease - Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
-Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER)-
The Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) test is the only accepted method of diagnosis. Bone stimulation transducer may be used in addition when conduction deafness is suspected.
OFA recommends this test be performed by board certified veterinary neurologists, but will accept test results from experienced veterinarians, neuroscience professionals, and audiologists. One test suffices for the lifetime of the animal.
Bilateral hearing passes the test. Unilateral or bilateral deafness fails.
BAER testing is done on canines at least 35 days old. A printed copy of the BAER Test tracing will be provided to the owner and the OFA. The printed copy of the BAER tracing must contain the dog’s name or identification linking it to this application.
Congenital Deafness - Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
-Urine Protein:Creatine Ratio (UPC)/Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)-
The protein-creatinine ration (UP:UC) is used to provide an estimate of the amount of protein lost in the urine. In healthy dogs, the urine protein to creatinine ratio (UP:UC) is usually <0.5. Values between 0.5-1.0 in non-azotemic dogs are considered equivocal and continued monitoring for progression is recommended.
-Eye Examination by a boarded ACVO Ophthalmologist-
The purpose of the OFA Companion Animal Eye Registry (CAER) is to provide breeders with information regarding canine eye diseases so that they may make informed breeding decisions in an effort to produce healthier dogs. CAER certifications will be performed by board certified (ACVO) veterinary ophthalmologists. Regardless of whether owners submit their CAER exam forms to the OFA for “certification,” all CAER exam data is collected for aggregate statistical purposes to provide information on trends in eye disease and breed susceptibility. Clinicians and students of ophthalmology as well as interested breed clubs, individual breeders and owners of specific breeds will find this useful.
Certification is valid for 12 months from the date of the eye exam. Annual re-examination is recommended.
Companion Animal Eye Registry (CAER - formerly CERF)
Recommended, but not required, health tests:
-Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) Hips, Elbows, Patellas and Shoulders-
Hip Dysplasia typically develops because of an abnormally developed hip joint, but can also be caused by cartilage damage from a traumatic fracture. With cartilage damage or a hip joint that isn’t formed properly, over time the existing cartilage will lose its thickness and elasticity. This breakdown of the cartilage will eventually result in pain with any joint movement.
Screenings for Hip Dysplasia are performed by a veterinarian with x-rays sent to OFA for grading and certification for dogs two (2) years old and older. The OFA classifies hips into seven different categories: Excellent, Good, Fair (all within Normal limits), Borderline, and then Mild, Moderate, or Severe (the last three considered Dysplastic).
For dogs under two (2) years of age, preliminary screenings are available.
Elbow dysplasia is a general term used to identify an inherited polygenic disease in the elbow. Three specific etiologies make up this disease and they can occur independently or in conjunction with one another. These etiologies include:
For elbow dysplasia evaluations for dogs, there are no grades for a radiographically normal elbow. The only grades involved are for abnormal elbows with radiographic changes associated with secondary degenerative joint disease. Like the hip certification, the OFA will not certify a normal elbow until the dog is 2 years of age. The OFA also accepts preliminary elbow radiographs. To date, there are no long-term studies for preliminary elbow examinations like there are for hips; however, preliminary screening for elbows along with hips can also provide valuable information to the breeder.
The patella, or kneecap, is part of the stifle joint (knee). In patellar luxation, the kneecap luxates, or pops out of place, either in a medial or lateral position. Bilateral involvement is most common, but unilateral is not uncommon. Animals can be affected by the time they are eight weeks of age.
An OFA number will be issued to all dogs found to be normal at 12 months of age or older. The OFA number will contain the age at evaluation and it is recommended that dogs be periodically reexamined as some luxations will not be evident until later in life.
Evaluation of dogs under 12 months of age is encouraged if the owner desires to breed at this age. The most opportune time to gather breeding data is at 6-8 weeks of age prior to the puppy’s release to the new owner.
While the exact mode of inheritance is unknown, Osteochondrosis is considered to be an inherited disease. In affected individuals there is a disruption in ossification of the cartilage mold beneath the articular cartilage of the joint. This results in aseptic necrosis and when the weakened area collapses, the articular cartilage fractures resulting in lameness.
OCD has been reported to occur in the shoulder, elbow, stifle, hock, and spine, and can be unilateral or bilateral. Most affected dogs that develop clinical signs are less than one year of age. This disease is seen in many breeds but appears to be more common in the larger body type breeds. It is also seen more frequently in males than females.
-Primary Lens Luxation (PLL)-
The lens of the eye normally lies immediately behind the iris and the pupil, and is suspended in place by a series of fibers, called zonular ligaments. It functions to focus light rays on the retina, in the back of the eye. When partial or complete breakdown of the zonular ligaments occurs, the lens may become partially dislocated (Lens Subluxation) or fully dislocated (Lens Luxation) from the lens’ normal position.
Primary Lens Luxation is a heritable disease in many breeds, including many terrier breeds... In these breeds, spontaneous luxation of the lens occurs in early adulthood (most commonly 3-6 years of age) and often affects both eyes, although not necessarily at the same time. Primary Lens Luxation is caused by an inherent weakness in the zonular ligaments which suspends the lens. Lens Luxation can also occur secondary to other primary problems of the eye, including inflammation, cataracts, glaucoma, cancer, and trauma.
Normal This dog has tested normal/clear for the mutation known to cause Primary Lens Luxation (PLL) in this breed. It can only transmit the normal/clear gene to its offspring.
Carrier/Low Risk This dog has tested as a carrier/low risk for the mutation known to cause Primary Lens Luxation (PLL) in this breed. This means the dog has one normal/clear copy and one mutated copy of the gene, and has a slight (5-10%) risk of developing Primary Lens Luxation. Either the normal/clear copy or the mutated copy of the gene can be transmitted to its offspring.
Affected/High Risk This dog has tested as affected/high-risk for the mutation known to cause Primary Lens Luxation (PLL) in this breed. It is at risk for developing clinical symptoms of PLL at some point in its lifetime, usually between 4-8 years of age. It can only transmit the mutated copy of the gene to its offspring.
Primary Lens Luxation
Statistics on Testing Results
-Lethal Acrodermatitis (LAD)-
Puppies Affected by Lethal Acrodermatits (LAD) have characteristic skin lesions and fail to thrive. These lesion consist of Erythema and adherent scales, primary on the feet, elbows, hocks and muzzle. Hyperkeratosis of the foot pads also occurs. Dogs with LAD are also immunodeficient, so frequently suffering from skin infections such as Malassezia or Candida. Puppies suffering from this condition have a greatly reduced lifespan either due to infections or they are euthanized when the condition becomes very severe and painful.
The Lethal Acrodermatits mutation is recessive; this means that a dog must inherit 2 copies of the mutation, one from each parent, to be clinically affected by Lethal Acrodermatits. Individuals with one copy of the defective gene and one copy of the normal gene, called carriers, show no signs of disease but can pass the defective gene onto their offspring.
It is only possible to identify carriers with DNA testing.
Animal Health Trust Disease Information
-Laryngeal Paralysis (LP)-
...More info coming soon... click here
The Dentition Database was established in late 2011 at the specific request of the American Rottweiler Club. Full dentition is an element of breed specific health, form and function for a number of breeds. The purpose of the database is to certify dogs with all adult teeth fully erupted. The database does not certify overall dental health, misaligned teeth, or dentition in accordance with a breed standard.
Each dog is to be examined and classified by a licensed veterinarian. The examining veterinarian will determine whether all adult teeth are fully erupted, identify any persistent (retained) deciduous teeth, as well as any missing teeth.
The exam form contains a dental chart, and any retained or missing teeth should be marked “P” (persistent) or “M” (missing). If the owner authorizes release of any abnormal information, the dental chart identifying the specific missing or persistent deciduous teeth will be included on the dog’s OFA webpage.
A breed registry number will be issued for any dog found to be normal with all adult teeth fully erupted.
Application for Dentition Database
-AKC DNA Profile-
The AKC DNA Profile Program brings cutting-edge parentage testing technology to AKC customers. A cheek swab brush is used to collect the DNA sample from the dog, and returned to the AKC. The sample is processed by AKC’s DNA service provider, Neogen, and the resulting genotype is entered into the AKC DNA Database. The information is used to verify parentage of AKC dogs and for genetic identity purposes. AKC DNA does not determine the breed of a dog or if a dog is a purebred.This technology allows breeders, dog owners, and the AKC to ensure that the AKC Registry is the most accurate in the world.
The dog owner will receive an AKC letter of DNA Analysis including the DNA profile for each dog sampled. Additionally, for dogs individually registered at the time the DNA sample is received by the AKC, the DNA Profile Number will be added to that dog’s registration record, and will appear on all Registration Certificates and Pedigrees issued in the future.
AKC's DNA Profile Program (Order DNA Test Kit)
Other Health Information:
Genotypic (DNA Tested) Diseases
*All of our dogs are fully health tested before being bred, including the "optional" health tests. All dogs will have AKC DNA profiles.